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31 10, 2018

Emerging Brands versus Legacy Brands

By |2018-10-31T23:53:28+00:00October 31st, 2018|Categories: Franchising 101|Comments Off on Emerging Brands versus Legacy Brands

Smiling woman business owner

Emerging Brands versus Legacy Brands

What you need to know

By Paul Segreto

As franchising continues to strengthen, new concepts are entering the market in a variety of industries. If you’re looking to buy into a franchise business, you now have more options than ever before. Along with exploring opportunities in legacy brands—those household names like McDonald’s, The UPS Store, and Gold’s Gym—you can also consider emerging brands, which are relatively new like Sub Zero Nitrogen Ice Cream, The Toasted Yolk Café, and Hummus & Pita Co. But why would you want to get involved with an emerging brand? After all, isn’t it safer to invest in a recognized brand with a proven system as opposed to investing in something new and relatively unknown?

Legacy Brands
Typically, a legacy brand has been developed over many years—in some cases, 20 to 50 years or more. There’s a relative level of success as exemplified by the shear number of locations across a region or the country. The perception of success is even greater. And you’ll pay for that success—buying into a legacy brand tends to cost more than an emerging brand. But the brand name is well known from a multitude of geographic locations and a huge amount of advertising. Some legacy brands are equated to slogans or spokespersons—think KFC’s Colonel Sanders. For training and support, you’ll most likely find an impressive corporate office with various departments and possibly local field offices or training centers.

Obviously, this type of business is well established and offers lots of support from corporate. It may be best suited for a franchisee who has a lot of upfront capital and who wants to follow systems—not develop them—that are already in place. An entrepreneur who can afford to make a big investment can make huge rewards.

Emerging Brands
An emerging brand is one where the initial business, from which the franchise has been developed, is well known locally. The founder is also well known and may be a local hero, of sorts. Customers live in the founder’s neighborhood with some knowing him or her from way back when. The brand is viewed as the antithesis of a big-chain establishment, attracting customers like magnets.

An emerging brand lets you get in on the ground floor of something—there is the possibility of a big payoff, but there is also huge risk. This brand is in its infancy; it is not well known and its mass market appeal may still remain a mystery. For an entrepreneur who wants to help shape a brand and who is willing to take on more risk for more potential reward, an emerging brand might be for you.

Paul Segreto is a recognized entrepreneur, franchise and small business professional. His expertise includes startups and turnarounds, strategic planning, business and franchise development, branding, social media and digital marketing with primary focus on restaurants and service-driven businesses.

Segreto founded Franchise Today podcast in 2009 and Franchising & You podcast in 2018. He is CEO of the Franchise Foundry. Contact Segreto at Contact Segreto at paul@franchisefoundry.com.

Smiling woman business owner

Emerging Brands versus Legacy Brands

What you need to know

By Paul Segreto

As franchising continues to strengthen, new concepts are entering the market in a variety of industries. If you’re looking to buy into a franchise business, you now have more options than ever before. Along with exploring opportunities in legacy brands—those household names like McDonald’s, The UPS Store, and Gold’s Gym—you can also consider emerging brands, which are relatively new like Sub Zero Nitrogen Ice Cream, The Toasted Yolk Café, and Hummus & Pita Co. But why would you want to get involved with an emerging brand? After all, isn’t it safer to invest in a recognized brand with a proven system as opposed to investing in something new and relatively unknown?

Legacy Brands
Typically, a legacy brand has been developed over many years—in some cases, 20 to 50 years or more. There’s a relative level of success as exemplified by the shear number of locations across a region or the country. The perception of success is even greater. And you’ll pay for that success—buying into a legacy brand tends to cost more than an emerging brand. But the brand name is well known from a multitude of geographic locations and a huge amount of advertising. Some legacy brands are equated to slogans or spokespersons—think KFC’s Colonel Sanders. For training and support, you’ll most likely find an impressive corporate office with various departments and possibly local field offices or training centers.

Obviously, this type of business is well established and offers lots of support from corporate. It may be best suited for a franchisee who has a lot of upfront capital and who wants to follow systems—not develop them—that are already in place. An entrepreneur who can afford to make a big investment can make huge rewards.

Emerging Brands
An emerging brand is one where the initial business, from which the franchise has been developed, is well known locally. The founder is also well known and may be a local hero, of sorts. Customers live in the founder’s neighborhood with some knowing him or her from way back when. The brand is viewed as the antithesis of a big-chain establishment, attracting customers like magnets.

An emerging brand lets you get in on the ground floor of something—there is the possibility of a big payoff, but there is also huge risk. This brand is in its infancy; it is not well known and its mass market appeal may still remain a mystery. For an entrepreneur who wants to help shape a brand and who is willing to take on more risk for more potential reward, an emerging brand might be for you.

Paul Segreto is a recognized entrepreneur, franchise and small business professional. His expertise includes startups and turnarounds, strategic planning, business and franchise development, branding, social media and digital marketing with primary focus on restaurants and service-driven businesses.

Segreto founded Franchise Today podcast in 2009 and Franchising & You podcast in 2018. He is CEO of the Franchise Foundry. Contact Segreto at Contact Segreto at paul@franchisefoundry.com.

31 10, 2018

Part 4: Breaking Down the FDD

By |2018-10-31T23:45:30+00:00October 31st, 2018|Categories: Legal|Comments Off on Part 4: Breaking Down the FDD

Smiling man with tablet

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 4

Breaking Down the FDD

Items 11: Franchisor’s Assistance, Advertising, Computer Systems, and Training

by Nicole Micklich

Item 11 is intended to provide an understanding of the franchisor’s obligations to his franchisees. For every one of the franchisor’s obligations disclosed in Item 11, the franchisor must include a citation to the specific section of the franchise agreement where the franchisor agrees to the obligation. Item 11 can be lengthy and complicated. This piece breaks down the topics Item 11 must cover: preopening assistance, post-opening assistance, optional assistance, advertising, computer requirements, and operating manuals.

One thing to keep in mind is that the franchisor is only bound by obligations set forth in Item 11—so if a potential obligation isn’t mentioned in Item 11, the franchisor doesn’t have to act on it. In fact, the FTC requires franchisors to begin their Item 11 disclosure with the following statement, in bold print: “Except as listed below, [franchisor] is not required to provide you with any assistance.”

Pre-Opening Assistance

Pre-opening assistance might include site location assistance, site requirements, and lease negotiation. In some systems, pre-opening assistance includes initial training

Post-Opening Assistance

Training: Franchisors are required to disclose information about their training programs including information about the staff who provide the training. Some training disclosures must be summarized in a table that must include:

  • a list of the subject matter of the training
  • the hours of classroom training on each subject
  • the hours of on-the-job training
  • the location of the training

In addition to the table, franchisors must also disclose who is required to attend training, for example, whether a franchisee’s store manager must undergo certain training, as well as who pays for travel and living expenses during training, and whether refresher training is required.

Advertising: The franchisor is required to disclose information regarding advertising assistance including:

  • whether the franchisor is required to conduct advertising
  • the media used for advertising, such as radio, television, Internet
  • the source of the advertising
  • the geographic scope of the advertising
  • whether or not franchisees must contribute to an advertising fund
  • whether and how much franchisees are required to spend on local advertising
  • whether and how advertising councils or co-ops operate in the franchise system

Advertising Funds: If franchisees are required to contribute to an advertising fund, the FTC rule requires franchisors to disclose:

  • who contributes to the fund
  • whether other franchisees and franchisor-owned units contribute on the same basis
  • who administers the fund
  • whether the fund is audited
  • whether the financial statements of the fund are available for review
  • whether the franchisees receive periodic accountings of fund expenditures
  • the percentage of the fund used primarily to solicit new franchise sales

Optional Assistance

If a franchisor provides pre- or post-opening assistance other than what the franchise agreement requires, it can disclose that optional assistance in Item 11. The franchisor should list the optional assistance separately and clearly identify that it is not required by the franchise agreement.

Computer Requirements

In Item 11, franchisors are also required to generally describe computer requirements for franchisees. These might include the franchisor’s requirement that franchisees purchase specific software, from specific approved suppliers. The disclosure should also explain whether the franchisor will have independent access to the franchisee’s computer system or electronic cash register and whether the franchisor has the right to conduct audits of accounting records maintained electronically.

Operating Manual

Franchisees will receive a system’s operating manual after the purchase is complete. Here, Item 11 requires that franchisors disclose the manual’s table of contents, unless the franchisor offers prospective franchisees the opportunity to review the operating manual prior to buying the franchise.

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com

Smiling man with tablet

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 4

Breaking Down the FDD

Items 11: Franchisor’s Assistance, Advertising, Computer Systems, and Training

by Nicole Micklich

Item 11 is intended to provide an understanding of the franchisor’s obligations to his franchisees. For every one of the franchisor’s obligations disclosed in Item 11, the franchisor must include a citation to the specific section of the franchise agreement where the franchisor agrees to the obligation. Item 11 can be lengthy and complicated. This piece breaks down the topics Item 11 must cover: preopening assistance, post-opening assistance, optional assistance, advertising, computer requirements, and operating manuals.

One thing to keep in mind is that the franchisor is only bound by obligations set forth in Item 11—so if a potential obligation isn’t mentioned in Item 11, the franchisor doesn’t have to act on it. In fact, the FTC requires franchisors to begin their Item 11 disclosure with the following statement, in bold print: “Except as listed below, [franchisor] is not required to provide you with any assistance.”

Pre-Opening Assistance

Pre-opening assistance might include site location assistance, site requirements, and lease negotiation. In some systems, pre-opening assistance includes initial training

Post-Opening Assistance

Training: Franchisors are required to disclose information about their training programs including information about the staff who provide the training. Some training disclosures must be summarized in a table that must include:

  • a list of the subject matter of the training
  • the hours of classroom training on each subject
  • the hours of on-the-job training
  • the location of the training

In addition to the table, franchisors must also disclose who is required to attend training, for example, whether a franchisee’s store manager must undergo certain training, as well as who pays for travel and living expenses during training, and whether refresher training is required.

Advertising: The franchisor is required to disclose information regarding advertising assistance including:

  • whether the franchisor is required to conduct advertising
  • the media used for advertising, such as radio, television, Internet
  • the source of the advertising
  • the geographic scope of the advertising
  • whether or not franchisees must contribute to an advertising fund
  • whether and how much franchisees are required to spend on local advertising
  • whether and how advertising councils or co-ops operate in the franchise system

Advertising Funds: If franchisees are required to contribute to an advertising fund, the FTC rule requires franchisors to disclose:

  • who contributes to the fund
  • whether other franchisees and franchisor-owned units contribute on the same basis
  • who administers the fund
  • whether the fund is audited
  • whether the financial statements of the fund are available for review
  • whether the franchisees receive periodic accountings of fund expenditures
  • the percentage of the fund used primarily to solicit new franchise sales

Optional Assistance

If a franchisor provides pre- or post-opening assistance other than what the franchise agreement requires, it can disclose that optional assistance in Item 11. The franchisor should list the optional assistance separately and clearly identify that it is not required by the franchise agreement.

Computer Requirements

In Item 11, franchisors are also required to generally describe computer requirements for franchisees. These might include the franchisor’s requirement that franchisees purchase specific software, from specific approved suppliers. The disclosure should also explain whether the franchisor will have independent access to the franchisee’s computer system or electronic cash register and whether the franchisor has the right to conduct audits of accounting records maintained electronically.

Operating Manual

Franchisees will receive a system’s operating manual after the purchase is complete. Here, Item 11 requires that franchisors disclose the manual’s table of contents, unless the franchisor offers prospective franchisees the opportunity to review the operating manual prior to buying the franchise.

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com

31 10, 2018

Tips for Buying a Franchise Resale

By |2018-10-31T23:01:45+00:00October 31st, 2018|Categories: Legal|Comments Off on Tips for Buying a Franchise Resale

Business Handshake

Tips for buying a franchise resale

By Jason Power

Purchasing an existing franchised business, instead of starting one from the ground up, can be a great way to walk into an existing income stream and avoid the high costs of build-outs and training. But purchasing an existing franchise requires a slightly different analysis than purchasing a new one, and there are specific points that need to be addressed. Here are a few key considerations:

Read the franchise disclosure document (FDD) and franchise agreement.

When you buy a franchise resale, you will be required to sign a franchise agreement. You will be as obligated to your franchise agreement, just as the previous owner was to his. Take the time to read and understand your rights, duties, and obligations as a franchisee, because you will be subject to these terms for the next 10 (or more) years.

Review the asset purchase agreement.

When you and the seller agree on the terms of the sale, the seller’s attorney will draft an asset purchase agreement. This agreement —sometimes simply called a buy-sell agreement—spells out the terms of the sale: when the purchase price is due, the closing date, what assets are included and excluded from the sale, and what liabilities you are assuming, like debts of the seller. Review your asset purchase agreement with an attorney to ensure you are properly protected.

Make sure the franchisor approves of the transfer.

Every franchise agreement gives the franchisor the authority to approve of a transfer and of you as the buyer. If the franchisor does not consent to the transfer—or to you as the new owner—then the entire transaction could be dead in the water.

Have a valuation of the business performed.

When you purchase any business, you should know and understand the actual value of the business. Many times this is different than the asking price and can provide room for negotiations. Value can include a variety of things such as the business goodwill, the current inventory, and equipment, etc. The best way to determine the value of a business is to hire a company that focuses on business valuation services.

Obtain and review financial statements.

Purchasing a business that is not profitable is not a smart move. Request that the seller provide financial statements from the last three years (at least) and review them with your accountant to determine profitability and trends. You should also ask the franchisor to provide you with financial information about the seller’s business to make sure the information matches up.

Determine why the existing owner is selling.

People sell their franchises for many reasons. Maybe an owner is ready to retire, or maybe he’s dealing with personal issues that require him to step away from the business. Determine if the seller is selling for personal reasons or if he is jumping ship on a sinking business. Also, study the industry to make sure that it’s sustainable.

Talk to other franchisees and the franchisor about the seller.

Learn about the seller, his reputation, and the business’s reputation in the system, too. If you are buying into a business with a bad reputation, you may have an uphill battle ahead of you.

Paying the transfer fee.

Most franchisors require a transfer fee to cover their costs in evaluating the transfer and the buyer. Either you or the seller must make sure this fee is paid. This transfer fee can be a flat rate or a percentage of the franchise fee. Before you finalize your purchase agreement, make sure you’ve accounted for the transfer fee.

Analyze the franchisor.

Once you purchase the franchise, you will become a franchisee and subject to rules and responsibilities imposed by the franchisor. Just like if you were buying a new franchise, conduct your own investigation of the franchisor to determine whether she has systems and procedures in place to support the system as a whole. There are franchisors that do not have the infrastructure, systems, procedures, or vendors in place to support the system, which hurts franchisees.

Will the staff stay?

If the business you are purchasing has staff or a management team, determine early on if they will stay with the business or if they plan to leave with the seller. Also, if the franchise was run by the seller with little or no staff, as is often the case with a small home-based business, request that the seller agree to be a consultant for a set period of time to introduce you to customers, referral sources, and vendors.

Have a franchise attorney review the agreements.

Purchasing a franchise, even an existing one, involves various areas of law that many attorneys who are not familiar with franchise law may miss or deem absurd. Have a franchise attorney review all the franchise agreements and purchase agreements before you sign.

Jason Power exclusively practices franchise law as a partner at Barber Power Law Group in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has assisted hundreds of franchisees with their FDDs and buying into franchises all over the country. Power also represents emerging and established franchisors. Contact Power at jpower@barberpowerlaw.com or by calling 980-202-5679. Visit www.barberpowerlaw.com.

Business Handshake

Tips for buying a franchise resale

By Jason Power

Purchasing an existing franchised business, instead of starting one from the ground up, can be a great way to walk into an existing income stream and avoid the high costs of build-outs and training. But purchasing an existing franchise requires a slightly different analysis than purchasing a new one, and there are specific points that need to be addressed. Here are a few key considerations:

Read the franchise disclosure document (FDD) and franchise agreement.

When you buy a franchise resale, you will be required to sign a franchise agreement. You will be as obligated to your franchise agreement, just as the previous owner was to his. Take the time to read and understand your rights, duties, and obligations as a franchisee, because you will be subject to these terms for the next 10 (or more) years.

Review the asset purchase agreement.

When you and the seller agree on the terms of the sale, the seller’s attorney will draft an asset purchase agreement. This agreement —sometimes simply called a buy-sell agreement—spells out the terms of the sale: when the purchase price is due, the closing date, what assets are included and excluded from the sale, and what liabilities you are assuming, like debts of the seller. Review your asset purchase agreement with an attorney to ensure you are properly protected.

Make sure the franchisor approves of the transfer.

Every franchise agreement gives the franchisor the authority to approve of a transfer and of you as the buyer. If the franchisor does not consent to the transfer—or to you as the new owner—then the entire transaction could be dead in the water.

Have a valuation of the business performed.

When you purchase any business, you should know and understand the actual value of the business. Many times this is different than the asking price and can provide room for negotiations. Value can include a variety of things such as the business goodwill, the current inventory, and equipment, etc. The best way to determine the value of a business is to hire a company that focuses on business valuation services.

Obtain and review financial statements.

Purchasing a business that is not profitable is not a smart move. Request that the seller provide financial statements from the last three years (at least) and review them with your accountant to determine profitability and trends. You should also ask the franchisor to provide you with financial information about the seller’s business to make sure the information matches up.

Determine why the existing owner is selling.

People sell their franchises for many reasons. Maybe an owner is ready to retire, or maybe he’s dealing with personal issues that require him to step away from the business. Determine if the seller is selling for personal reasons or if he is jumping ship on a sinking business. Also, study the industry to make sure that it’s sustainable.

Talk to other franchisees and the franchisor about the seller.

Learn about the seller, his reputation, and the business’s reputation in the system, too. If you are buying into a business with a bad reputation, you may have an uphill battle ahead of you.

Paying the transfer fee.

Most franchisors require a transfer fee to cover their costs in evaluating the transfer and the buyer. Either you or the seller must make sure this fee is paid. This transfer fee can be a flat rate or a percentage of the franchise fee. Before you finalize your purchase agreement, make sure you’ve accounted for the transfer fee.

Analyze the franchisor.

Once you purchase the franchise, you will become a franchisee and subject to rules and responsibilities imposed by the franchisor. Just like if you were buying a new franchise, conduct your own investigation of the franchisor to determine whether she has systems and procedures in place to support the system as a whole. There are franchisors that do not have the infrastructure, systems, procedures, or vendors in place to support the system, which hurts franchisees.

Will the staff stay?

If the business you are purchasing has staff or a management team, determine early on if they will stay with the business or if they plan to leave with the seller. Also, if the franchise was run by the seller with little or no staff, as is often the case with a small home-based business, request that the seller agree to be a consultant for a set period of time to introduce you to customers, referral sources, and vendors.

Have a franchise attorney review the agreements.

Purchasing a franchise, even an existing one, involves various areas of law that many attorneys who are not familiar with franchise law may miss or deem absurd. Have a franchise attorney review all the franchise agreements and purchase agreements before you sign.

Jason Power exclusively practices franchise law as a partner at Barber Power Law Group in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has assisted hundreds of franchisees with their FDDs and buying into franchises all over the country. Power also represents emerging and established franchisors. Contact Power at jpower@barberpowerlaw.com or by calling 980-202-5679. Visit www.barberpowerlaw.com.

29 09, 2018

Why do I have to sign a Personal Guaranty?!

By |2018-09-29T20:01:10+00:00September 29th, 2018|Categories: Legal|Comments Off on Why do I have to sign a Personal Guaranty?!

Signing a guaranty

Why do I have to sign a Personal Guaranty?!

By Jonathan Barber

When you consider buying into a franchise, you receive hundreds of pages of disclosures and contracts. Most likely, there is a personal guaranty somewhere in that huge PDF. It’s important to understand what a personal guaranty is and why most franchisors require that you sign one.

A personal guaranty is a promise to pay the debt or fulfill the obligation of another if that person or entity fails to do so. In franchise deals, almost every franchisee signs a franchise agreement as an entity. John Doe creates John Doe, LLC and signs the franchise agreement on behalf of John Doe, LLC instead of in his individual capacity. However, the franchisor requires John Doe to sign a personal guaranty. By signing this, John Doe is saying that he will pay any debts or fulfill any  obligations that John Doe, LLC fails to pay or perform. Yes, this grants the franchisor access to John Doe’s personal assets in the event his franchise venture goes south. This concept is scary to most franchisees, but it’s important to think about this from the other side of the deal.

If a franchisor didn’t require a franchisee to sign a personal guaranty, that franchisee could virtually do whatever he wants and exit the system upon a whim. Imagine that John Doe, above, buys into and opens up a childcare franchise. Let’s say that the franchisor didn’t require him to sign a personal guaranty.

Everything’s going great in Year Three of John Doe’s term, but he thinks he could make a ton of money selling craft beer in his community. He decides to start  brewing beer in one of his classrooms and opens up a pub on the back patio of the daycare. John Doe quickly gets a notice of default from the franchisor, because that’s a breach of several portions of his franchise agreement. John Doe transfers all of the assets out of his LLC and sends the franchisor a notice of termination, and continues operating his daycare-brewery.

Now, the franchisor can get a judgment against John Doe, LLC that it can’t execute because John Doe, LLC has no assets! The franchisor can’t go after John Doe individually because he never signed a personal guaranty. Now, the franchisor is stuck with a damaged brand, a terminated franchisee, a host of administrative and legal fees, and probably the cost involved with getting a new franchisee in that territory.

If John Doe had signed a personal guaranty, his feet would be held to the fire. He would then be personally responsible for making sure that he, through John Doe, LLC does not breach the terms of their franchise agreement. It’s amazing how compliant someone can be when his personal assets are at stake

The bottom line: A personal guaranty is a tool for ensuring franchisees have skin in the game. Requiring a personal guaranty to be signed by individual owner of a franchisee entity and his spouse is the industry norm. In the 300+ FDDs I’ve reviewed for prospective franchisees, I’ve never not seen a personal guaranty in a
franchise deal. While it’s something every prospective franchisee needs to consider in his risk analysis, it should not be a surprise or a deal breaker.

And by the way, if anyone wants to start a daycare-brewery franchise, call me!

Jonathan Barber exclusively practices franchise law as a partner at Barber Power Law Group, in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has assisted hundreds of franchisees with their FDDs and buying into franchises all over the world. Barber also represents emerging and established franchisors. Contact Barber at
JBarber@barberpowerlaw.com or by calling 980-202-5679.

Signing a guaranty

Why do I have to sign a Personal Guaranty?!

By Jonathan Barber

When you consider buying into a franchise, you receive hundreds of pages of disclosures and contracts. Most likely, there is a personal guaranty somewhere in that huge PDF. It’s important to understand what a personal guaranty is and why most franchisors require that you sign one.

A personal guaranty is a promise to pay the debt or fulfill the obligation of another if that person or entity fails to do so. In franchise deals, almost every franchisee signs a franchise agreement as an entity. John Doe creates John Doe, LLC and signs the franchise agreement on behalf of John Doe, LLC instead of in his individual capacity. However, the franchisor requires John Doe to sign a personal guaranty. By signing this, John Doe is saying that he will pay any debts or fulfill any obligations that John Doe, LLC fails to pay or perform. Yes, this grants the franchisor access to John Doe’s personal assets in the event his franchise venture goes south. This concept is scary to most franchisees, but it’s important to think about this from the other side of the deal.

If a franchisor didn’t require a franchisee to sign a personal guaranty, that franchisee could virtually do whatever he wants and exit the system upon a whim. Imagine that John Doe, above, buys into and opens up a childcare franchise. Let’s say that the franchisor didn’t require him to sign a personal guaranty.

Everything’s going great in Year Three of John Doe’s term, but he thinks he could make a ton of money selling craft beer in his community. He decides to start brewing beer in one of his classrooms and opens up a pub on the back patio of the daycare. John Doe quickly gets a notice of default from the franchisor, because that’s a breach of several portions of his franchise agreement. John Doe transfers all of the assets out of his LLC and sends the franchisor a notice of termination, and continues operating his daycare-brewery.

Now, the franchisor can get a judgment against John Doe, LLC that it can’t execute because John Doe, LLC has no assets! The franchisor can’t go after John Doe individually because he never signed a personal guaranty. Now, the franchisor is stuck with a damaged brand, a terminated franchisee, a host of administrative and legal fees, and probably the cost involved with getting a new franchisee in that territory.

If John Doe had signed a personal guaranty, his feet would be held to the fire. He would then be personally responsible for making sure that he, through John Doe, LLC does not breach the terms of their franchise agreement. It’s amazing how compliant someone can be when his personal assets are at stake

The bottom line: A personal guaranty is a tool for ensuring franchisees have skin in the game. Requiring a personal guaranty to be signed by individual owner of a franchisee entity and his spouse is the industry norm. In the 300+ FDDs I’ve reviewed for prospective franchisees, I’ve never not seen a personal guaranty in a
franchise deal. While it’s something every prospective franchisee needs to consider in his risk analysis, it should not be a surprise or a deal breaker.

And by the way, if anyone wants to start a daycare-brewery franchise, call me!

Jonathan Barber exclusively practices franchise law as a partner at Barber Power Law Group, in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has assisted hundreds of franchisees with their FDDs and buying into franchises all over the world. Barber also represents emerging and established franchisors. Contact Barber at
JBarber@barberpowerlaw.com or by calling 980-202-5679.

29 09, 2018

Part 3: Breaking Down the FDD

By |2018-09-29T21:01:43+00:00September 29th, 2018|Categories: Legal|Comments Off on Part 3: Breaking Down the FDD

Woman in Doorway of Shop

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 3

Breaking Down the FDD

Items 9 & 15: Franchisee’s Obligations

by Nicole Micklich

Last month’s edition opened with the idea that buying into a franchise system means accepting the notion that if you play by the rules, you get the benefits of brand awareness and franchisor support. Those rules are set out in the FDD and the franchise agreement. They become binding obligations of the franchisee when the franchise agreement is signed.

Item 9 of the FDD should contain a disclosure of all the “principal obligations of the franchisee under the franchise and other agreements” once the franchise agreement is executed. Item 15 must describe how much direct involvement the franchisee is required to have in the operation of the franchise business.

Item 9: Franchisee’s Obligations

Item 9 must provide prospective franchisees with detailed directions toward where to find the franchisee’s obligations in the franchise agreement. Franchisors must follow the FTC Rule and create a detailed table that refers to the sections in the franchise agreement that the franchisee should read to understand the franchisee’s specific obligations. The table should lead the franchisee to detailed information about the franchisee’s obligations.

If an obligation is contained in an ancillary agreement, the franchisor should direct prospects to the specific provision of the ancillary agreement. An ancillary agreement might be a covenant not to compete, an obligation that should be included in the table. Obligations imposed on the franchisee that are not listed in the FTC Rule must be included, as well, under the heading “Other”.

The table should include where to find requirements about transfers and renewals. Even though at the start of a relationship it might be hard to think about the end, prospective franchisees are about to make an enormous investment, they must consider exit options to protect that investment.

Prospective franchisees should use the table and review the contract provisions detailing the franchisee’s obligations. If a prospective franchisee does not understand those provisions, it is important to develop that understanding before signing the franchise agreement. To learn more, ask a franchise attorney.

Item 15: Obligation to Participate in the Actual Operation of the Franchise Business

Item 15 explains the role that the franchisee must have in the business operation. For example, some franchisors allow the franchisee to be an absentee owner, someone who owns the franchise without taking an active role in its management. Most though require the franchisee to have some active role in the franchised business. Item 15 should explain how much involvement the franchisor requires, and whether the franchisor requires the franchisee to provide on-site supervision of the business. Item 15 is especially important for prospective franchisees who intend to continue to work in a current job while starting-up their new franchised business.

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com

Franchisors must follow the FTC Rule and create a detailed table that refers to the sections in the franchise agreement that the franchisee should read to understand the franchisee’s specific obligations. The table should lead the franchisee to detailed information about the franchisee’s obligations. The table must list 25 obligations in a form mandated by the FTC Rule. The top of it may look something like this:

FDD Chart
Woman in Doorway of Shop

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 3

Breaking Down the FDD

Items 9 & 15: Franchisee’s Obligations

by Nicole Micklich

Last month’s edition opened with the idea that buying into a franchise system means accepting the notion that if you play by the rules, you get the benefits of brand awareness and franchisor support. Those rules are set out in the FDD and the franchise agreement. They become binding obligations of the franchisee when the franchise agreement is signed.

Item 9 of the FDD should contain a disclosure of all the “principal obligations of the franchisee under the franchise and other agreements” once the franchise agreement is executed. Item 15 must describe how much direct involvement the franchisee is required to have in the operation of the franchise business.

Item 9: Franchisee’s Obligations

Item 9 must provide prospective franchisees with detailed directions toward where to find the franchisee’s obligations in the franchise agreement. Franchisors must follow the FTC Rule and create a detailed table that refers to the sections in the franchise agreement that the franchisee should read to understand the franchisee’s specific obligations. The table should lead the franchisee to detailed information about the franchisee’s obligations.

If an obligation is contained in an ancillary agreement, the franchisor should direct prospects to the specific provision of the ancillary agreement. An ancillary agreement might be a covenant not to compete, an obligation that should be included in the table. Obligations imposed on the franchisee that are not listed in the FTC Rule must be included, as well, under the heading “Other”.

The table should include where to find requirements about transfers and renewals. Even though at the start of a relationship it might be hard to think about the end, prospective franchisees are about to make an enormous investment, they must consider exit options to protect that investment.

Prospective franchisees should use the table and review the contract provisions detailing the franchisee’s obligations. If a prospective franchisee does not understand those provisions, it is important to develop that understanding before signing the franchise agreement. To learn more, ask a franchise attorney.

Item 15: Obligation to Participate in the Actual Operation of the Franchise Business

Item 15 explains the role that the franchisee must have in the business operation. For example, some franchisors allow the franchisee to be an absentee owner, someone who owns the franchise without taking an active role in its management. Most though require the franchisee to have some active role in the franchised business. Item 15 should explain how much involvement the franchisor requires, and whether the franchisor requires the franchisee to provide on-site supervision of the business. Item 15 is especially important for prospective franchisees who intend to continue to work in a current job while starting-up their new franchised business.

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com

Franchisors must follow the FTC Rule and create a detailed table that refers to the sections in the franchise agreement that the franchisee should read to understand the franchisee’s specific obligations. The table should lead the franchisee to detailed information about the franchisee’s obligations. The table must list 25 obligations in a form mandated by the FTC Rule. The top of it may look something like this:

30 08, 2018

Part 2: Breaking Down the FDD

By |2018-08-31T00:16:58+00:00August 30th, 2018|Categories: Legal|Comments Off on Part 2: Breaking Down the FDD

Woman using tablet

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 2

Breaking Down the FDD

Item 8: Restrictions on Sources of Products and Services.

by Nicole Micklich

Part of buying into a franchise system is accepting the notion that if you play by the rules, you get the benefits of brand awareness and franchisor support. Item 8 of the FDD discusses suppliers and lays out sourcing restrictions for products and materials, which is especially important in food-based concepts.

Item 8 can be very revealing, so it’s important to understand. The franchisor may negotiate arrangements with approved vendors, and these arrangements may result in some franchisees paying more for certain items than if they bought the same items elsewhere. For example, a franchisor may designate only one approved supplier for cleaning products. The franchisor’s arrangement with the supplier results in advertising contributions to the franchisor, which the franchisor can allocate to any market. This arrangement obviously works well for the franchisor—but it may have seemingly little benefit for a franchisee.

A franchisee, in a market that does not receive those advertising dollars, might prefer a brand of cleanser that costs half the price of the approved brand. But using a different product can put the franchisee out of compliance. And, as a franchisee, you stand to benefit from the brand awareness developed by the franchisor.

Item 16: Restrictions on What the Franchisee May Sell

This item should disclose any restrictions or conditions relating to what a franchisee sells. It may say, “We require you to offer and sell only those goods and services that we have approved. You must offer all goods and services we designate as required for all franchisees.” This means every franchisee must offer all the required products or services. On the other hand, Item 16 may reveal that franchisees in certain regions may offer different products, because regional preferences may vary.

Sometimes a system has additional goods or services that are optional for qualified franchisees. Item 16 might inform that optional services can be offered by franchisees in compliance with certain obligations. For example, an auto service concept might allow qualified franchisees to offer rustproofing services to customers. Only franchisees who are in compliance and have undergone specific training required by the franchisor may be permitted to offer rustproofing services. If these kinds of optional services can lead to increased
profitability, they’re worth knowing about.

Item 16 should also explain whether the franchisor has the right to change the types of good or services the franchisee can sell, and if there are any restrictions on that right. FDDs often indicate that there are no limits on the franchisor’s right to add, modify, or delete products and services that franchisees are required to offer. The FDD may say, “We reserve the right add additional required goods and services in the future and to withdraw goods and services we previously authorized.” And would add, “There are no limits on our right to do so.” However, sometimes there is a restriction or possible exception, and in that instance, the FDD could say, “There are no limits on our right to do so, except that the investment required of a franchisee for equipment, supplies, and initial inventory will not exceed $15,000 per year.” Or, “There are no limits on our right to do so, but we may make limited exceptions based on special circumstances, although we are not required to do so.” When franchisors change the types of goods or services the franchisees can sell, it can be costly for franchisees.

It’s important for prospective franchisees to understand the franchisor’s rights and limitations. For instance, a franchisor might disclose: “We have the right to designate additional required goods and services and to withdraw any previous approvals. There are no limitations on our right to do so.” Or, a franchisor might state: “We have the right to add additional required services. There are no limits on our right to do so, except that the investment required of a franchisee for equipment, supplies, and initial inventory will not exceed $15,000 per year.” Prospective franchisees should consider whether the franchisor can change requirements during the term of the franchise agreement.

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com

Woman using tablet

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 2

Breaking Down the FDD

Item 8: Restrictions on Sources of Products and Services.

by Nicole Micklich

Part of buying into a franchise system is accepting the notion that if you play by the rules, you get the benefits of brand awareness and franchisor support. Item 8 of the FDD discusses suppliers and lays out sourcing restrictions for products and materials, which is especially important in food-based concepts.

Item 8 can be very revealing, so it’s important to understand. The franchisor may negotiate arrangements with approved vendors, and these arrangements may result in some franchisees paying more for certain items than if they bought the same items elsewhere. For example, a franchisor may designate only one approved supplier for cleaning products. The franchisor’s arrangement with the supplier results in advertising contributions to the franchisor, which the franchisor can allocate to any market. This arrangement obviously works well for the franchisor—but it may have seemingly little benefit for a franchisee.

A franchisee, in a market that does not receive those advertising dollars, might prefer a brand of cleanser that costs half the price of the approved brand. But using a different product can put the franchisee out of compliance. And, as a franchisee, you stand to benefit from the brand awareness developed by the franchisor.

Item 16: Restrictions on What the Franchisee May Sell

This item should disclose any restrictions or conditions relating to what a franchisee sells. It may say, “We require you to offer and sell only those goods and services that we have approved. You must offer all goods and services we designate as required for all franchisees.” This means every franchisee must offer all the required products or services. On the other hand, Item 16 may reveal that franchisees in certain regions may offer different products, because regional preferences may vary.

Sometimes a system has additional goods or services that are optional for qualified franchisees. Item 16 might inform that optional services can be offered by franchisees in compliance with certain obligations. For example, an auto service concept might allow qualified franchisees to offer rustproofing services to customers. Only franchisees who are in compliance and have undergone specific training required by the franchisor may be permitted to offer rustproofing services. If these kinds of optional services can lead to increased
profitability, they’re worth knowing about.

Item 16 should also explain whether the franchisor has the right to change the types of good or services the franchisee can sell, and if there are any restrictions on that right. FDDs often indicate that there are no limits on the franchisor’s right to add, modify, or delete products and services that franchisees are required to offer. The FDD may say, “We reserve the right add additional required goods and services in the future and to withdraw goods and services we previously authorized.” And would add, “There are no limits on our right to do so.” However, sometimes there is a restriction or possible exception, and in that instance, the FDD could say, “There are no limits on our right to do so, except that the investment required of a franchisee for equipment, supplies, and initial inventory will not exceed $15,000 per year.” Or, “There are no limits on our right to do so, but we may make limited exceptions based on special circumstances, although we are not required to do so.” When franchisors change the types of goods or services the franchisees can sell, it can be costly for franchisees.

It’s important for prospective franchisees to understand the franchisor’s rights and limitations. For instance, a franchisor might disclose: “We have the right to designate additional required goods and services and to withdraw any previous approvals. There are no limitations on our right to do so.” Or, a franchisor might state: “We have the right to add additional required services. There are no limits on our right to do so, except that the investment required of a franchisee for equipment, supplies, and initial inventory will not exceed $15,000 per year.” Prospective franchisees should consider whether the franchisor can change requirements during the term of the franchise agreement.

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com

21 08, 2018

Legal Issues Restaurant Franchisees Face

By |2018-08-21T14:17:32+00:00August 21st, 2018|Categories: Legal|Comments Off on Legal Issues Restaurant Franchisees Face

Opening a Restaurant

Legal Issues Restaurant Franchisees Face

By Jason Power

Owning a restaurant can be a fun way to make money. Like any other business though, a restaurant franchise comes with its own set of legal issues that you, as the owner, must manage. Before you open your restaurant, talk with both a franchise attorney and an attorney who is well versed in the local laws in your state and those laws relating to restaurants. Here are five legal issues that restaurant owners typically encounter.

Business Structure

Your business structure—the actual place where your business is run—is important whether you are opening a restaurant franchise or any other type of business. When choosing your type of business structure, you should always talk with an attorney and accountant. An attorney can assist with setting up your business entity and making sure all the proper documentation is filed and signed by all owners. An accountant can help you navigate state and IRS regulations to determine if one business structure has a more advantageous tax status for you.

Permits and Licenses

When preparing to open your restaurant, research the laws of your city, country, or state. Any or all of these local governing bodies may require permits or licenses, which include a food-service permit, alcohol license, business license, and food-safety permit. It can take several weeks to get approved for licenses, so you should apply for these as soon as possible.

Employees

Employees can be one of the most frustrating issues with your restaurant, so you must be careful when hiring staff. All states have laws relating to employee wages and overtime, hours, and general working conditions. These laws, specifically those relating to employee wages, are why many fast-food restaurants are beginning to have customers use touch-screen computers for ordering, instead of paying higher wages for employees.

When working with employees, you must consult with your attorney and an insurance agent. The Affordable Care Act requires that you, as the employer, offer health benefits if you have more than 50 full-time workers or pay high penalties.

In addition to these concerns, you also need to ask each employee before you hire them whether they have any non-competition clauses with a former employer. If you hire an employee who is restricted by a non-competition agreement with a former employer, you could be liable to the former employer if they bring a lawsuit.

Uniformity

Because your restaurant is part of a franchise system, you will be required to follow the franchisor’s systems and procedures. This means that you will need to build your restaurant to the franchisor’s design standards. You will also need to use the franchisor’s menu, suppliers, recipes, etc. These systems and procedures imposed by the franchisor are designed to give customers a similar experience, no matter which franchised location they visit.

Customer Data Security

Everyday there are stories about a restaurant or retail chain with a data breach. This can be devastating for customers who have their credit-card information stolen, and it can cripple any business who is the victim of this breach. When speaking with the franchisor and your credit-card processing vendors, you need to understand PCI compliance and ensure your point-of-sale system is safe with proper encryption. Additionally, you would benefit from talking with your insurance agent about additional insurance coverage for data breaches.

Jason Power exclusively practices franchise law as a partner at Barber Power Law Group in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has assisted hundreds of franchisees with their FDDs and buying into franchises all over the country. Power also represents emerging and established franchisors. Contact him at jpower@barberpowerlaw.com or by calling 980-202-5679. Visit www.barberpowerlaw.com.

Opening a Restaurant

Legal Issues Restaurant Franchisees Face

By Jason Power

Owning a restaurant can be a fun way to make money. Like any other business though, a restaurant franchise comes with its own set of legal issues that you, as the owner, must manage. Before you open your restaurant, talk with both a franchise attorney and an attorney who is well versed in the local laws in your state and those laws relating to restaurants. Here are five legal issues that restaurant owners typically encounter.

Business Structure

Your business structure—the actual place where your business is run—is important whether you are opening a restaurant franchise or any other type of business. When choosing your type of business structure, you should always talk with an attorney and accountant. An attorney can assist with setting up your business entity and making sure all the proper documentation is filed and signed by all owners. An accountant can help you navigate state and IRS regulations to determine if one business structure has a more advantageous tax status for you.

Permits and Licenses

When preparing to open your restaurant, research the laws of your city, country, or state. Any or all of these local governing bodies may require permits or licenses, which include a food-service permit, alcohol license, business license, and food-safety permit. It can take several weeks to get approved for licenses, so you should apply for these as soon as possible.

Employees

Employees can be one of the most frustrating issues with your restaurant, so you must be careful when hiring staff. All states have laws relating to employee wages and overtime, hours, and general working conditions. These laws, specifically those relating to employee wages, are why many fast-food restaurants are beginning to have customers use touch-screen computers for ordering, instead of paying higher wages for employees.

When working with employees, you must consult with your attorney and an insurance agent. The Affordable Care Act requires that you, as the employer, offer health benefits if you have more than 50 full-time workers or pay high penalties.

In addition to these concerns, you also need to ask each employee before you hire them whether they have any non-competition clauses with a former employer. If you hire an employee who is restricted by a non-competition agreement with a former employer, you could be liable to the former employer if they bring a lawsuit.

Uniformity

Because your restaurant is part of a franchise system, you will be required to follow the franchisor’s systems and procedures. This means that you will need to build your restaurant to the franchisor’s design standards. You will also need to use the franchisor’s menu, suppliers, recipes, etc. These systems and procedures imposed by the franchisor are designed to give customers a similar experience, no matter which franchised location they visit.

Customer Data Security

Everyday there are stories about a restaurant or retail chain with a data breach. This can be devastating for customers who have their credit-card information stolen, and it can cripple any business who is the victim of this breach. When speaking with the franchisor and your credit-card processing vendors, you need to understand PCI compliance and ensure your point-of-sale system is safe with proper encryption. Additionally, you would benefit from talking with your insurance agent about additional insurance coverage for data breaches.

Jason Power exclusively practices franchise law as a partner at Barber Power Law Group in Charlotte, North Carolina. He has assisted hundreds of franchisees with their FDDs and buying into franchises all over the country. Power also represents emerging and established franchisors. Contact him at jpower@barberpowerlaw.com or by calling 980-202-5679. Visit www.barberpowerlaw.com.

21 08, 2018

Exploring Franchise Opportunities

By |2018-08-21T14:21:01+00:00August 21st, 2018|Categories: Franchising 101|Comments Off on Exploring Franchise Opportunities

Business meeting

Exploring Franchise Opportunities:

Get the Answers YOU Need!

By Paul Segreto

Potential franchise buyers know before making a final decision, they need to obtain information from other franchisees and also, their possible franchisors. But what information do they need to get?

Generally, I recommend using the Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) as a guide. Read through it and ask a potential franchisor very specific questions about each item listed. It’s a can’t-miss road map. Here’s a start.

What is the history of the franchise concept?
What is the founder’s vision? Who is on the executive and support teams? What experience do they bring to the table? If a franchisor hasn’t worked at a location, how has he learned about daily operations? Has he owned a business before? It’s important to understand how these individuals relate to franchisees.

How high could expenses go?
All expenses should be clearly defined. It’s imperative to gain a complete understanding of the range of expenses—and why they are what they are. Inquire about assistance for everything from advertising to site selection to your grand opening.
What is the temperament of the franchise group nationally and within your market? Of course, I recommend speaking with franchisees, too. Make sure to ask them about costs, problems, profits, and trends. Discuss competition with both the franchisor and franchisees.

Ask about exit strategies.
At some point, you may want to exit the system or you may have to exit. If you have to exit, is there support if you’re in trouble? Ask about transfer fees and the process of selling your business. Understand the franchisor’s approval process. What happened to each franchisee listed under terminated or closed franchises on the FDD? What happened to their locations? Have they continued operation under a new franchisee or corporate? Is the location still available?

Ask yourself if you would consider a long-term relationship with this brand and its leadership.

After this process is complete and you’ve reviewed your notes, trust your gut instinct! Take your time and think things through until you’re 100 percent sure of your decision. Make sure you have all your support mechanisms in place, including friends and family. Do not kid yourself. Do not lie to yourself. And, do not justify any negatives. Being honest with yourself will help you make the right decision.

Paul Segreto is a recognized entrepreneur, franchise and small business professional. His expertise includes startups and turnarounds, strategic planning, business and franchise development, branding, social media and digital marketing with primary focus on restaurants and service-driven businesses.

Segreto founded Franchise Today podcast in 2009 and Franchising & You podcast in 2018. He is CEO of the Franchise Foundry. Contact Segreto at paul@franchisefoundry.com.

Business meeting

Exploring Franchise Opportunities:

Get the Answers YOU Need!

By Paul Segreto

Potential franchise buyers know before making a final decision, they need to obtain information from other franchisees and also, their possible franchisors. But what information do they need to get?

Generally, I recommend using the Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) as a guide. Read through it and ask a potential franchisor very specific questions about each item listed. It’s a can’t-miss road map. Here’s a start.

What is the history of the franchise concept?
What is the founder’s vision? Who is on the executive and support teams? What experience do they bring to the table? If a franchisor hasn’t worked at a location, how has he learned about daily operations? Has he owned a business before? It’s important to understand how these individuals relate to franchisees.

How high could expenses go?
All expenses should be clearly defined. It’s imperative to gain a complete understanding of the range of expenses—and why they are what they are. Inquire about assistance for everything from advertising to site selection to your grand opening.
What is the temperament of the franchise group nationally and within your market? Of course, I recommend speaking with franchisees, too. Make sure to ask them about costs, problems, profits, and trends. Discuss competition with both the franchisor and franchisees.

Ask about exit strategies.
At some point, you may want to exit the system or you may have to exit. If you have to exit, is there support if you’re in trouble? Ask about transfer fees and the process of selling your business. Understand the franchisor’s approval process. What happened to each franchisee listed under terminated or closed franchises on the FDD? What happened to their locations? Have they continued operation under a new franchisee or corporate? Is the location still available?

Ask yourself if you would consider a long-term relationship with this brand and its leadership.

After this process is complete and you’ve reviewed your notes, trust your gut instinct! Take your time and think things through until you’re 100 percent sure of your decision. Make sure you have all your support mechanisms in place, including friends and family. Do not kid yourself. Do not lie to yourself. And, do not justify any negatives. Being honest with yourself will help you make the right decision.

Paul Segreto is a recognized entrepreneur, franchise and small business professional. His expertise includes startups and turnarounds, strategic planning, business and franchise development, branding, social media and digital marketing with primary focus on restaurants and service-driven businesses.

Segreto founded Franchise Today podcast in 2009 and Franchising & You podcast in 2018. He is CEO of the Franchise Foundry. Contact Segreto at paul@franchisefoundry.com.

31 07, 2018

Words
to Know

By |2018-08-21T13:56:24+00:00July 31st, 2018|Categories: Franchising 101|Comments Off on Words
to Know

Reading Dictionary

Words to Know

Important terms that potential franchisees should know.

By Susan Scotts

Absentee ownership: The potential to manage and own a franchise without active involvement in the day-to-day operations. The franchisee will purchase the franchise unit but will hire someone else to manage and run the unit.

Owner-operator: The franchisee will run the franchise unit him or herself and be hands-on during day-to-day tasks.

Advertising fee: The amount that is paid, annually or monthly, by the franchisee to the franchisor to cover some of the costs relating to advertising. These are sometimes calculated as a percentage of gross sales.

Discovery day: The opportunity to visit a franchise’s corporate headquarters in order to meet the management and support team and learn more about the franchise. Not all franchisors require them or offer them.

Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD): The Federal Trade Commission mandates that franchisors provide detailed of information about the franchisor. This information, which includes the buy-in costs and initial start-up expenses, is packaged in a 150-page document known as the Franchise Disclosure Document. It is commonly referred to as the FDD.

Franchise: The authorization of a right or brand name to a person to sell or distribute the company’s goods or services. Franchisee: The person or entity that purchases and is granted a franchise.

Franchise agreement: The actual contract which includes the responsibilities of the franchisor and franchisee. This document is signed by both parties.

Franchise fee: The initial up-front fee a franchisee pays for the right to purchase a franchise and use the trademark and business system. This is typically paid at the signing of the franchise agreement.

Franchisor: The franchise company and owner of a franchise system’s trademark brand that provides usage rights to a franchisee.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC): A federal agency assigned to regulate franchises. This agency protects America’s consumers and assists in protecting them against false, deceptive, or unfair trade or advertising practices.

International Franchise Association (IFA): Founded in 1960, this membership organization includes franchisors, franchisees, and suppliers.

Initial investment/start-up costs: The initial investment that the franchisee makes in becoming a franchisee during the start-up period. These costs can include the franchisee fee, lease improvements, asset costs, inventory, deposits, working capital, and other costs required to establish the business.

Net worth: Total assets minus total liabilities of an individual. A franchisor may require a minimum net worth prior to approval as a franchisee.

Receipt acknowledgement: In franchising, the receipt to be signed by potential franchisee as proof of the date of receiving of the FDD.

Renewal: Franchise agreement lengths vary and expire after anywhere from five to 20 years. After the initial agreement, the contract may be renewed but not always under the same original conditions. A renewal fee may be less than the original franchise fee.

Royalty fee: The share or percentage of gross sales paid by the franchisee to the franchisor on a recurring basis from the franchisee’s generated sales.

Small Business Administration (SBA): The SBA connects entrepreneurs with lenders and funding to help them plan, start, and grow their businesses.

With three decades of experience, Susan Scotts, of The Entrepreneur’s Source®, can help you determine if a franchise may be the best way to achieve your personal income, lifestyle, wealth, and equity goals. For more information, call 561-859-9110 or visit www.SScotts.EsourceCoach.com.

Reading Dictionary

Words to Know

Important terms that potential franchisees should know.

By Susan Scotts

Absentee ownership: The potential to manage and own a franchise without active involvement in the day-to-day operations. The franchisee will purchase the franchise unit but will hire someone else to manage and run the unit.

Owner-operator: The franchisee will run the franchise unit him or herself and be hands-on during day-to-day tasks.

Advertising fee: The amount that is paid, annually or monthly, by the franchisee to the franchisor to cover some of the costs relating to advertising. These are sometimes calculated as a percentage of gross sales.

Discovery day: The opportunity to visit a franchise’s corporate headquarters in order to meet the management and support team and learn more about the franchise. Not all franchisors require them or offer them.

Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD): The Federal Trade Commission mandates that franchisors provide detailed of information about the franchisor. This information, which includes the buy-in costs and initial start-up expenses, is packaged in a 150-page document known as the Franchise Disclosure Document. It is commonly referred to as the FDD.

Franchise: The authorization of a right or brand name to a person to sell or distribute the company’s goods or services. Franchisee: The person or entity that purchases and is granted a franchise.

Franchise agreement: The actual contract which includes the responsibilities of the franchisor and franchisee. This document is signed by both parties.

Franchise fee: The initial up-front fee a franchisee pays for the right to purchase a franchise and use the trademark and business system. This is typically paid at the signing of the franchise agreement.

Franchisor: The franchise company and owner of a franchise system’s trademark brand that provides usage rights to a franchisee.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC): A federal agency assigned to regulate franchises. This agency protects America’s consumers and assists in protecting them against false, deceptive, or unfair trade or advertising practices.

International Franchise Association (IFA): Founded in 1960, this membership organization includes franchisors, franchisees, and suppliers.

Initial investment/start-up costs: The initial investment that the franchisee makes in becoming a franchisee during the start-up period. These costs can include the franchisee fee, lease improvements, asset costs, inventory, deposits, working capital, and other costs required to establish the business.

Net worth: Total assets minus total liabilities of an individual. A franchisor may require a minimum net worth prior to approval as a franchisee.

Receipt acknowledgement: In franchising, the receipt to be signed by potential franchisee as proof of the date of receiving of the FDD.

Renewal: Franchise agreement lengths vary and expire after anywhere from five to 20 years. After the initial agreement, the contract may be renewed but not always under the same original conditions. A renewal fee may be less than the original franchise fee.

Royalty fee: The share or percentage of gross sales paid by the franchisee to the franchisor on a recurring basis from the franchisee’s generated sales.

Small Business Administration (SBA): The SBA connects entrepreneurs with lenders and funding to help them plan, start, and grow their businesses.

With three decades of experience, Susan Scotts, of The Entrepreneur’s Source®, can help you determine if a franchise may be the best way to achieve your personal income, lifestyle, wealth, and equity goals. For more information, call 561-859-9110 or visit www.SScotts.EsourceCoach.com.

31 07, 2018

Part 1: Breaking Down the FDD

By |2018-07-31T18:16:37+00:00July 31st, 2018|Categories: Legal|Comments Off on Part 1: Breaking Down the FDD

Man using calculator

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 1

Breaking Down the FDD

Item 7: Estimated Initial Investment.

You’ve heard it before: Be sure you understand your Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) before you buy into a franchise. The advice makes sense—after all, the document is there to protect you by listing everything the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) believes you need to know about your franchisor. But given that it’s a 150-page legal document, many prospective franchisees aren’t always clear on the details.

It’s complicated, we get it. So, to help you understand the finer points of the FDD, we’ve enlisted Nicole Micklich, a franchise attorney. In the next six issues of Franchise Dictionary Magazine, she will highlight some common misunderstandings about the document and clarify them. Here, we launch with the topic that everyone needs to be clear on: Money.

Under the FTC Franchise Rule, in Item 7 of the Franchise Disclosure Document, the franchisor must provide an estimate of the likely initial investment costs a franchisee will incur. Don’t confuse Item 7 with Item 5. Item 5 only discloses the initial fees that must be paid to the franchisor or affiliate. Item 7 should be more detailed than Item 5.

Item 7 requires franchisors to use a table to set out a franchisee’s entire estimated initial investment. The table is supposed to disclose all the expenses required by the franchise agreement and all other costs necessary for a franchisee to pen for business, including those that are to be paid to third parties, like rent.

The Rule does not dictate a complete list of the types of fees or expenses that must be shown in the table. The Rule provides suggestions of the typical expenses franchisees will incur. Franchisors should also identify and itemize other specific required payments franchisees must make to start operating.

Item 7 covers the period that ends when the franchisee opens for business. It also requires franchisors to include in the table “Additional Funds” for the time during the “initial period” of operations. The “initial period” can vary depending on brand, and franchisors must disclose the specific initial period used in the FDD.

For each item listed in the Item 7 table, the franchisor must disclose:

  • The amount of the payment
  • The method of payment
  • When the payment is due
  • To whom the payment is to be made

Some of the costs set out in the Item 7 table may be difficult for the franchisor to estimate and the franchisor may use ranges or variables. Franchisors use footnotes to provide more information about the Item 7 expenditures. If the franchisor offers different types of outlets, like restaurants that offer both stand-alone units and units in convenience stores, the franchisor might use more than one table.

As you consider the purchase of your franchise, you and your advisors should carefully and cautiously use Item 7 and other information provided by the franchisor to prepare a financial model for your start-up costs.

The Cost of Franchising

There are numerous costs associated with starting your franchised business, including:

  • The initial franchise fee
  • Training
  • Travel and living, to re-locate or for training, until business becomes profitable
  • Organizing and registering a business entity
  • Banking
  • Obtaining business licenses and permits
  • Negotiating a lease or purchase of real property (franchisor may require a real estate consultant)
  • Security deposits, utility deposits
  • Rent or mortgage payments
  • Insurance, including renter’s, auto, workers’ compensation, commercial general liability, officers and directors
  • Remodeling, leasehold improvements, and decorating
  • Advertising and marketing, both required and optional, and grand opening
  • Payroll, including pre-opening payroll during employee training
  • Equipment
  • Fixtures
  • Vehicle(s), truck(s), trailer(s), and/or vehicle wraps or paint
  • Gasoline/Fuel
  • Signage
  • Bookkeeping
  • Computer hardware
  • Computer software, including POS
  • Telephone system
  • Promotional Items
  • Opening Inventory
  • Cash on hand

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com

Man using calculator

SPECIAL SECTION: PART 1

Breaking Down the FDD

Item 7: Estimated Initial Investment.

You’ve heard it before: Be sure you understand your Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) before you buy into a franchise. The advice makes sense—after all, the document is there to protect you by listing everything the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) believes you need to know about your franchisor. But given that it’s a 150-page legal document, many prospective franchisees aren’t always clear on the details.

It’s complicated, we get it. So, to help you understand the finer points of the FDD, we’ve enlisted Nicole Micklich, a franchise attorney. In the next six issues of Franchise Dictionary Magazine, she will highlight some common misunderstandings about the document and clarify them. Here, we launch with the topic that everyone needs to be clear on: Money.

Under the FTC Franchise Rule, in Item 7 of the Franchise Disclosure Document, the franchisor must provide an estimate of the likely initial investment costs a franchisee will incur. Don’t confuse Item 7 with Item 5. Item 5 only discloses the initial fees that must be paid to the franchisor or affiliate. Item 7 should be more detailed than Item 5.

Item 7 requires franchisors to use a table to set out a franchisee’s entire estimated initial investment. The table is supposed to disclose all the expenses required by the franchise agreement and all other costs necessary for a franchisee to pen for business, including those that are to be paid to third parties, like rent.

The Rule does not dictate a complete list of the types of fees or expenses that must be shown in the table. The Rule provides suggestions of the typical expenses franchisees will incur. Franchisors should also identify and itemize other specific required payments franchisees must make to start operating.

Item 7 covers the period that ends when the franchisee opens for business. It also requires franchisors to include in the table “Additional Funds” for the time during the “initial period” of operations. The “initial period” can vary depending on brand, and franchisors must disclose the specific initial period used in the FDD.

For each item listed in the Item 7 table, the franchisor must disclose:

  • The amount of the payment
  • The method of payment
  • When the payment is due
  • To whom the payment is to be made

Some of the costs set out in the Item 7 table may be difficult for the franchisor to estimate and the franchisor may use ranges or variables. Franchisors use footnotes to provide more information about the Item 7 expenditures. If the franchisor offers different types of outlets, like restaurants that offer both stand-alone units and units in convenience stores, the franchisor might use more than one table.

As you consider the purchase of your franchise, you and your advisors should carefully and cautiously use Item 7 and other information provided by the franchisor to prepare a financial model for your start-up costs.

The Cost of Franchising

There are numerous costs associated with starting your franchised business, including:

  • The initial franchise fee
  • Training
  • Travel and living, to re-locate or for training, until business becomes profitable
  • Organizing and registering a business entity
  • Banking
  • Obtaining business licenses and permits
  • Negotiating a lease or purchase of real property (franchisor may require a real estate consultant)
  • Security deposits, utility deposits
  • Rent or mortgage payments
  • Insurance, including renter’s, auto, workers’ compensation, commercial general liability, officers and directors
  • Remodeling, leasehold improvements, and decorating
  • Advertising and marketing, both required and optional, and grand opening
  • Payroll, including pre-opening payroll during employee training
  • Equipment
  • Fixtures
  • Vehicle(s), truck(s), trailer(s), and/or vehicle wraps or paint
  • Gasoline/Fuel
  • Signage
  • Bookkeeping
  • Computer hardware
  • Computer software, including POS
  • Telephone system
  • Promotional Items
  • Opening Inventory
  • Cash on hand

Nicole Micklich is a franchise attorney with Garcia & Milas. Contact her at (203) 773-3824 or email her at nmicklich@garciamilas.com